Properties of Solid Liquid and Gas
Matter exists in three forms of state. They are solid state, liquid state and gaseous state. Solid state is the state in which matter maintains a fixed volume and shape. The state in which matter maintains fixed volume but it adopts the shape of its container is liquid state. In the gaseous state, matter expands to occupy whatever volume is available.
Properties of Solid, Liquid and Gas
All the three states of matter have distinctions based on the difference in their interrelationships. Intermolecular attractions keep the molecules in fixed spatial relationships in solids. In the liquid state inter molecular attractions keep the molecules in fixed proximity, but do not keep the molecules in a fixed relationships. In gases, molecules are comparatively separated and intermolecular attractions have relatively little effect on their respective motions.
Particles of solid such as ions, atoms or molecules are packed closely together and the forces between these particles are strong enough so that these particles cannot move freely but they can vibrate. Solid has definite shape and definite volume. Solids can change their shape by force only when they are broken or cut. Solids can be transformed into liquids by melting and can be changed directly into gases by the process of sublimation.
In liquids, the volume is definite if the temperature and pressure are constant. The shape of the liquid is not definite. It is determined by its container. The highest temperature at which a given liquid can exist is called its critical temperature. Liquids can be converted into solids by the process of freezing.
Properties of Gas
In gases, molecules have enough kinetic energy so that the effect of the intermolecular forces is negligible and it is zero for the ideal gases. The typical distance between the neighbouring molecules is greater than its molecular size. Gases have no definite shape or volume. Gases occupy the entire container in which it is confined. Liquid can be converted into gas by heating at a constant pressure to the boiling point. Gas is called vapor at the temperatures below its critical temperatures.