The first question that arises when weread about distance, speed and velocity is the basic differencebetween speed and velocity. Velocity is the directional quantitywhile speed is not. We have already discussed about the importance ofdirection while calculating vector quantities.
Velocity in simple terms can be definedas the distance covered per unit time in a particular direction. Thismeans that here we are also taking the direction in consideration. Ifwe were to define speed we could have said it the distance per unittime. We will not have mentioned the direction bit.
We can divide the velocity into twoparts. These are final and the initial velocity. As it is clear fromthe name the In. velocity is basically the starting velocity of anobject or a body while final velocity is the finishing velocity. Itmay seem confusing at first but is quite easy.
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Let us take an example. If the carstarts and attains a velocity of 30 kilometers per hour then theinitial vel. Considered would be zero km per hour while the finalvelocity will be 30 km per hour after 4 hours in a particulardirection say southwards. Calculate InitialVelocity is easy. We can directly use the equation ofmotion which says
v = u + a t - - - - - - -(1)
Here v is the final velocity
U is the initial velocity
A is the acceleration
And t is the time taken to attain thefinal velocity.
Also s = u t + ½ a t 2 - -- - - - - - -(2)
Here s is the distance covered in aparticular time interval.
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This is the Equationfor Initial Velocity. There is yet another equation forits Calculating Initial Velocity.It is:
V2 = u2 + 2 a s -- - - - - - - - - -(3)
Let us assume a ball is rolling on aplatform. It attains a velocity of 10 m per seconds with anacceleration of 4 m per second 2. The time taken is 2seconds.
Let us try to calculate the initialvelocity. Take the first equation into consideration.
So v = u + a t
10 = u + 2 * 4
10 = u + 8
u = 2
So initial vel. is 2 metre per second.
You can also calculate it according todifferent values of s, a, v, t in different situations.
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