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Fundamental Force in Nature

The interaction of simple particles in the universe has fundamental forces.  In nature, there are four fundamental forces electromagnetic forces, weak interaction, strong interaction and gravitational forces.  According to modern physics magnitude and behavior of each force vary greatly.

Fundamental forces in nature and their relative strength:


Fundamental force                         Relative strength


Strong                                                   1038

Electromagnetic                                     1036

Weak                                                    1025

Gravitation                                             1


Properties of Fundamental Forces:


Strong interactive force:

  • In nature, strong interactive force is very strong but it is very much short ranged force.

  • Strong force is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together.

  • In some circumstances, it can be effectively repulsive but basically it is a attractive force in nature.

Weak interactive force:

  • Weak interactive force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions.

  • It is very weak force in nature and it has very short range.

Electromagnetic forces:

  • Electromagnetic force is very long ranged force but very much weaker than strong interactive force.

  • This force causes electric and magnetic effects.

Gravitational force:

  • It is a weak force but compare to other forces it is very long ranged. 

  • This force acts between any two pieces of matter in the universe.


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Interactions of Fundamental Force


Strong interactive force:

This force holds inside the atomic nucleus. Distances vary greater than 10 femtometers hence it is very complicated interaction.  After the discovery of nucleus it was clear that new force is required to overcome electrostatic repulsion otherwise nucleus could not exist. 


Weak interactive force:

This force is responsible for the beta decay during nuclear reactions.  Standard model theory shows that electromagnetism and weak force are the unified aspects of electroweak interactions.   According to this theory,  carriers of weak force are the massive gauge bosons which are called as W and Z bosons.


Electromagnetic force:

The force which acts between electrically charged particles is known as electromagnetism.  Electric and magnetic forces acting between charged particles is the phenomena. This force determines all macroscopic and many atomic level properties of the chemical elements.


Gravitational force:

It is the weakest force in the nature compare to all other forces. This is the only force that acts on all particles having mass. Gravitational force has infinite range like electromagnetism. This force cannot be shielded against, cannot be absorbed and also cannot be transformed.


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