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Fundamental Forces in Nature

Force is the cause that produces motion, change in motion and deformation in objects. In our daily life, we observe that force is needed to throw a ball, to stop a ball, and to stretch or compress a spring.

In macroscopic world, we experience a number of forces like gravitational force, muscular force, contact force between bodies, frictional force, etc., also in microscopic use number of forces like electric and magnetic forces, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force.


Fundamental forces in nature:


Some of fundamental forces in natures are,

  • Gravitational force
  • Electromagnetic force
  • Strong Nuclear force
  • Weak Nuclear force

Gravitational force:


The gravitational force is attractive in nature and arises die to attraction between any two objects due to their masses. It is universal force and acts between any two objects of universe. All objects on earth experience gravitational force due to large mass of earth.

According to Newton’s law of gravitation, “The gravitational force of attraction among two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance among them”.


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Electromagnetic force:


                The magnitude of force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the square of distance between them. That is

`Falpha(q_(1)q_(2))/(r^2)`     (or)  `F=K(q_(1)q_(2))/(r^2)`

                                                                

                                            Electromagnetic Force  


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Strong Nuclear force:


                The strong nuclear force is the strongest among all the fundamental forces. It is the strong nuclear force which keeps the nucleons together in the small nucleus.

                Main characteristics of string nuclear forces are:

  • Nuclear force is strongest attractive force in nature.
  • Nuclear force is charge self-governing.
  • The burly nuclear force is short-range force.

Weak Nuclear force:


                  Weak force arises in certain nuclear processes such as β-decay of a radioactive nucleus and operates among elementary particles.

Thus, gravitational force is the weakest force and the strong nuclear force is the strongest force in nature.


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