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Solubility Rules

Solubility RulesChemistry


In chemistry, these rules are mainlyused, helps or guidelines, strictly devoted to determining solubility(miscibility) of the substances. The miscibility of the substancesinvolved must be known, in order to predict if there will be a anyprecipitate in a chemical reaction. When a substance or solute mixedwith the solvent to produce a solution then as per the solubility ofthe substance, there will be a series of possible results such as,

  • If the amount of solute present inthe solution is less than the maximum amount that it is able todissolve in a solution, it results the pure or diluted solution.

  • If the amount of solute present inthe solution is equal to the miscibility limit, it results thesaturated solution.

  • If the amount of solute present inthe solution is more than is able to be dissolved, it results theprecipitated solution. Because the excess amount of solute getsprecipitated in the solution.

Rules forsolubility helps to determined this of the various substancesand to which extent, so that we can find out what result of mixtureor solution will be.


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The force of attraction between thewater molecules and ionic solids determines the miscibility of thecompound. If these forces are high then the compound may be highlysoluble in water. General Solubility Rulesfor common ionic solids are as follows.

  • All salts in group 1 includinglithium, sodium, potassium, etc. and poly ions such as ammonium ionsand salts of alkali metal cations are soluble, except some saltslike lithium ion.

  • All per-chlorates, nitrates andacetates are soluble.

  • All salts including iodides,bromides, and chlorides are soluble, except mercury (I), silver(Ag), and lead(Pb).

  • All sulfides, oxides, hydroxide,carbonates, and phosphates are insoluble, except those of sodium,potassium and ammonium. In that, oxides are reacts with water toform hydroxides.

  • All sulfates are soluble, exceptof these calcium (Ca2+), barium (Br2+), lead(Pb2+) and strontium (sr2+).

  • All sulfides of transition metalsare highly insoluble.

  • All hydroxides are insoluble,except sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+)hydroxides of barium (Ba2+) and calcium (Ca2+) areslightly soluble.


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Solubility Rules Practice 


It can give an idea about which cation and anioncombination of mixtures are soluble and which cation and anioncombination of mixtures are insoluble. It also help which kind ofsalts are get precipitated and which kind of salts are remains in theaqueous solution itself.

The set of these rules are very usefulin determining the product of a displacement reaction.

Also used for writing an ionic netequations for the reactions when the solution of anions and cationsare mixed together.